Environments services refers to the qualitative functions of natural assets of land, water and air. The three basic types of environmental services are disposal services, which reflect the functions of the natural environment as an absorptive sink for residuals, productive services, which reflect economic functions, and consumer or consumptive services, which provide for the physiological and recreational needs of humans.
Environmental services include the provision of raw materials and energy used to produce goods and services, as well as the removal of waste from human activities, and their role in life support and landscape maintenance. The environmental services concepts captures the broad idea that the natural environment incorporates many uses or benefits that can be termed as services.
Environmental services includes sewage services, refuse disposal, sanitation and similar services, reducing vehicle emissions, noise abatement services, nature and landscape protection services and “other” environmental services.
Environmental issues are issues related to human impact on the living environment, habitats, land use and natural resources.
The main known environmental issues are:
Acidification | Air quality | Biodiversity | Climate change | Conservation | Consumerism | Deforestation | Desertification | Eco-tourism | Endangered species / threatened species | Energy | Environmental degradation | Environmental health | Environmental impact assessment | Food safety | Genetic engineering or modification | Global environmental issues | Global Warming | Grassroots solutions | Habitat loss | Intergenerational equity | Intensive farming | Invasive species | Land degradation | Land use planning | Natural catastrophes | Nuclear power, waste and pollution | Over-exploitation of natural resources | Overfishing | Ozone depletion | Pollution | Population issues | Reduce, reuse, recycle | Soil conservation | Sustainability | Toxic chemicals | Waste | Water pollution | Water scarcity | Whaling
The environmental effects of parks and open lands are usually the driving factor behind their preservation, and rightly so. The benefits on air and water quality, climate change, biodiversity and habitat protection, and human behaviour are proven and pronounced. However, there are significant challenges to promoting open space preservation as a tool to protect the environment, as many of these environmental benefits are difficult to measure and quantify. Furthermore, it is important to realize that not all parks are equally beneficial, and the location, size, and uses of the preserved lands all play a role in how they impact the environment.